Week 5 – Leibniz II: Freedom & the PSR

We continue our discussion of Leibniz this week by looking at how his theory of the complete determination of everything (i.e. that everything has a reason, ground, or explanation) and his view of freedom.


  • Leibniz:
    • On Contingency
    • The Source of Contingent Truths
    • Excerpts from the Letters to Arnauld
    • Letter to Coste on Freedom
    • On Freedom
    • On Freedom & Possibility

All the Leibniz readings can be found here.

  • Adams, Leibniz, ch. 1
  • Lin, “Rationalism and Necessitarianism”^*
  • Rutherford, “Leibniz’s Principle of Intelligibility”
  • Newlands, “Leibniz and the Ground of Possibility”

All the recommended readings can be found here.